6. Improve the output¶
In the previous section, you initialised a custom BrachioGraph.
Now we’re going to save the definition in order to continue improving it.
6.1. Create a file to hold a custom definition¶
In the same directory as
brachiograph.py create a new file called
custom.py, import the
BrachioGraph class, and then create an instance with the pulse-width values you used
previously. For example:
from brachiograph import BrachioGraph bg = BrachioGraph( servo_1_parked_pw=1570, servo_2_parked_pw=1450, )
Save the file. From now on, you will initialise BrachioGraph in the Python shell using this definition - do it now:
from custom import bg
6.2. Counteract hysteresis¶
The next step is to improve the behaviour of the machine. The motors are not powerful, the arms and the plastic gears and components tend to flex under stress, and there’s slack in the system too. As a result, when you command the arms to a certain position, they will be a degree or so short of the target. And when you attempt to reach the same angle from the other direction, the same thing will happen, except that the error’s now on the other side of the correct angle.
This behaviour is called hysteresis, and we can attempt to counteract it. We’ll do this by accounting for it, and commanding the motors to overshoot their targets by an equivalent distance. Add hysteresis correction to the BrachioGraph definition:
from brachiograph import BrachioGraph bg = BrachioGraph( servo_1_parked_pw=1570, servo_2_parked_pw=1450, hysteresis_correction_1=10, hysteresis_correction_2=10, )
Exit the Python shell, start it again, and import your custom defined BrachioGraph once more:
from custom import bg
Try the test pattern again, in both directions, by using the
Now you should get better results. Try hysteresis correction values between 7 and 20, to see what works best. Remember to exit the Python shell and import the definition into a new one each time you change it.
6.3. Adjust the angle calculations¶
The default definition assumes that a 10 µs difference in pulse-width will result in a 1 degree difference in the
motor’s position. In practice, you’ll likely find that it’s not quite 10 µs. This will introduce distortion into the
drawings. Assuming that when you do
bg.park(), the inner arm is exactly at -90˚, try this:
Is the inner arm now exactly at 0˚? If not, try different values for
angle_1 until it’s as close as possible.
Find out the actual pulse-width value, and subtract it from the -90˚ pulse-width value. That’s the difference required
to move 90º. If you divide it by 90, you’ll get a value corresponding to 1 degree of movement.
Do a similar check with the outer arm. Add the values you discovered to the definition, for example:
from brachiograph import BrachioGraph bg = BrachioGraph( servo_1_parked_pw=1570, servo_2_parked_pw=1450, hysteresis_correction_1=10, hysteresis_correction_2=10, servo_1_degree_ms=-9.8, servo_2_degree_ms=10.1, )
Notice that the value for servo 1 is negative. (They’re different because one of the servos is mounted upside-down. If you get the sign wrong, the arm will move in the opposite direction.)
Between them, the hysteresis and angle calculation adjustments should improve the output substantially. At this point,
you can try converting some of your own images to lines and JSON values using the
For even better results, you should go on to the next section, for more sophisticated plotter calibration.